Publication Authors Summary
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) early-stage importation risk to Europe, January 2020. G. Pullano, F. Pinotti, E. Valdano, P.Y. Boëlle, C. Poletto, V. Colizza, 2020. As at 27 January 2020, 42 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) cases were confirmed outside China. We estimate the risk of case importation to Europe from affected areas in China via air travel. We consider travel restrictions in place, three reported cases in France, one in Germany. Estimated risk in Europe remains high. The United Kingdom, Germany and France are at highest risk. Importation from Beijing and Shanghai would lead to higher and widespread risk for Europe.
Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study Marius Gilbert, Giulia Pullano, Francesco Pinotti, Eugenio Valdano, Chiara Poletto, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Eric D’Ortenzio, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Serge Paul Eholie, Mathias Altmann, Bernardo Gutierrez, Moritz U G Kraemer*, Vittoria Colizza, 2020.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has spread from China to 25 countries. Local cycles of transmission have already occurred in 12 countries after case importation. In Africa, Egypt has so far confirmed one case. The management and control of COVID-19 importations heavily rely on a country's health capacity. Here we evaluate the preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against their risk of importation of COVID-19.

We used data on the volume of air travel departing from airports in the infected provinces in China and directed to Africa to estimate the risk of importation per country. We determined the country's capacity to detect and respond to cases with two indicators: preparedness, using the WHO International Health Regulations Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; and vulnerability, using the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index. Countries were clustered according to the Chinese regions contributing most to their risk.

Countries with the highest importation risk (ie, Egypt, Algeria, and South Africa) have moderate to high capacity to respond to outbreaks. Countries at moderate risk (ie, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana, and Kenya) have variable capacity and high vulnerability. We identified three clusters of countries that share the same exposure to the risk originating from the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and the city of Beijing, respectively.

Many countries in Africa are stepping up their preparedness to detect and cope with COVID-19 importations. Resources, intensified surveillance, and capacity building should be urgently prioritised in countries with moderate risk that might be ill-prepared to detect imported cases and to limit onward transmission.

Lessons learnt from 288 COVID-19 international cases: importations over time, effect of interventions, underdetection of imported cases Francesco Pinotti, Laura Di Domenico, Ernesto Ortega, Marco Mancastroppa, Giulia Pullano, Eugenio Valdano, Pierre-Yves Boelle, Chiara Poletto, Vittoria Colizza, 2020. 288 cases have been confirmed out of China from January 3 to February 13, 2020. We collected and synthesized all available information on these cases from official sources and media. We analyzed importations that were successfully isolated and those leading to onward transmission. We modeled their number over time, in relation to the origin of travel (Hubei province, other Chinese provinces, other countries) and interventions. We characterized importations timeline to assess the rapidity of isolation, and epidemiologically linked clusters to estimate the rate of detection. We found a rapid exponential growth of importations from Hubei, combined with a slower growth from the other areas. We predicted a rebound of importations from South East Asia in the upcoming weeks. Time from travel to detection has considerably decreased since the first importation, however 6 cases out of 10 were estimated to go undetected. Countries outside China should be prepared for the possible emergence of several undetected clusters of chains of local transmissions.
Are people excessively pessimistic about the risk of coronavirus infection? Jocelyn Raude, Marion Debin, Cecile Souty, Caroline Guerrisi, Clement Turbelin, Alessandra Falchi, Isabelle Bonmarin, Daniela Paolotti, Yamir Moreno,Chinelo Obi, Jim Duggan, Ania Wisniak, Antoine Flahault, Thierry Blanchon, Vittoria Colizza, 2020. The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 in China has raised the spectre of a novel, potentially catastrophic pandemic in both scientific and lay communities throughout the world. In this particular context, people have been accused of being excessively pessimistic regarding the future consequences of this emerging health threat. However, consistent with previous research in social psychology, a large survey conducted in Europe in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic shows that the majority of respondents was actually overly optimistic about the risk of infection.
The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak Chinazzi, M., Davis, J. T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., … & Viboud, C., 2020. Motivated by the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mainland China, we use a global metapopulation disease transmission model to project the impact of travel limitations on the national and international spread of the epidemic. The model is calibrated on the basis of internationally reported cases and shows that, at the start of the travel ban from Wuhan on 23 January 2020, most Chinese cities had already received many infected travelers. The travel quarantine of Wuhan delayed the overall epidemic progression by only 3 to 5 days in mainland China but had a more marked effect on the international scale, where case importations were reduced by nearly 80% until mid-February. Modeling results also indicate that sustained 90% travel restrictions to and from mainland China only modestly affect the epidemic trajectory unless combined with a 50% or higher reduction of transmission in the community.
PADI-web: an event-based surveillance system for detecting, classifying and processing online news. Sarah Valentin, Elena Arsevska, Alize Mercier, Sylvain Falala, Julien Rabatel, Renaud Lancelot, Mathieu Roche, 2020.

Global animal disease outbreak detection and monitoring rely on official sources, such as intergovernmental organisations, as well as digital media and other unofficial outlets. Manually extracting relevant information from unofficial sources is time-consuming. The Platform for Automated extraction of animal Disease Information from the web (PADI-web) is an automated biosurveillance system devoted to online news source monitoring for the detection of emerging/new animal infectious diseases by the French Epidemic Intelligence System. The tool automatically collects news via customised multilingual queries, classifies them and extracts epidemiological information. We detail each step of the PADI-web pipeline, with a focus on the new user-oriented features.

Automated Processing of Multilingual Online News for the Monitoring of Animal Infectious Diseases. 2nd MultilingualBIO: Multilingual Biomedical Text Processing Workshop - LREC, 2020 Sarah Valentin, Renaud Lancelot, Mathieu Roche, 2020.

The Platform for Automated extraction of animal Disease Information from the web (PADI-web) is an automated system which monitors the web for monitoring and detecting emerging animal infectious diseases. The tool automatically collects news via customised multilingual queries, classifies them and extracts epidemiological information. We detail the processing of multilingual online sources by PADI-web and analyse the translated outputs in a case study.

Monitoring online media reports for early detection of unknown diseases: Insight from a retrospective study of COVID‐19 emergence Sarah Valentin, Alizé Mercier, Renaud Lancelot, Mathieu Roche, Elena Arsevska. Monitoring online media reports for the early detection of unknown diseases: insights from a retrospective study of COVID-19 emergence, 2020.

Event‐based surveillance (EBS) systems monitor a broad range of information sources to detect early signals of disease emergence, including new and unknown diseases. In December 2019, a newly identified coronavirus emerged in Wuhan (China), causing a global coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) pandemic. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the capacity of three event‐based surveillance (EBS) systems (ProMED, HealthMap and PADI‐web) to detect early COVID‐19 emergence signals.

We focused on changes in online news vocabulary over the period before/after the identification of COVID‐19, while also assessing its contagiousness and pandemic potential. ProMED was the timeliest EBS, detecting signals one day before the official notification. At this early stage, the specific vocabulary used was related to ‘pneumonia symptoms’ and ‘mystery illness’. Once COVID‐19 was identified, the vocabulary changed to virus family and specific COVID‐19 acronyms.

Our results suggest that the three EBS systems are complementary regarding data sources, and all require timeliness improvements. EBS methods should be adapted to the different stages of disease emergence to enhance early detection of future unknown disease outbreaks.

Assessing the impact of coordinated COVID-19 exit strategies across Europe. N. W. Ruktanonchai, J. R. Floyd, S. Lai, C. W. Ruktanonchai, A. Sadilek, P. Rente-Lourenco, X. Ben, A. Carioli, J. Gwinn, J. E. Steele, O. Prosper, A. Schneider, A. Oplinger, P. Eastham, A. J. Tatem, 2020. As rates of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases decline across Europe owing to nonpharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing policies and lockdown measures, countries require guidance on how to ease restrictions while minimizing the risk of resurgent outbreaks. We use mobility and case data to quantify how coordinated exit strategies could delay continental resurgence and limit community transmission of COVID-19. We find that a resurgent continental epidemic could occur as many as 5 weeks earlier when well-connected countries with stringent existing interventions end their interventions prematurely. Further, we find that appropriate coordination can greatly improve the likelihood of eliminating community transmission throughout Europe. In particular, synchronizing intermittent lockdowns across Europe means that half as many lockdown periods would be required to end continent-wide community transmission.
Effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19 in China. Lai, S., Ruktanonchai, N.W., Zhou, L. et al., 2020

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic. The strategies based on non-pharmaceutical interventions that were used to contain the outbreak in China appear to be effective, but quantitative research is still needed to assess the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions and their timings.

Here, using epidemiological data on COVID-19 and anonymized data on human movement, we develop a modelling framework that uses daily travel networks to simulate different outbreak and intervention scenarios across China. We estimate that there were a total of 114,325 cases of COVID-19 (interquartile range 76,776–164,576) in mainland China as of 29 February 2020. Without non-pharmaceutical interventions, we predict that the number of cases would have been 67-fold higher (interquartile range 44–94-fold) by 29 February 2020, and we find that the effectiveness of different interventions varied. We estimate that early detection and isolation of cases prevented more infections than did travel restrictions and contact reductions, but that a combination of non-pharmaceutical interventions achieved the strongest and most rapid effect.

According to our model, the lifting of travel restrictions from 17 February 2020 does not lead to an increase in cases across China if social distancing interventions can be maintained, even at a limited level of an on average 25% reduction in contact between individuals that continues until late April. These findings improve our understanding of the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19, and will inform response efforts across the world.

Seasonal and interannual risks of dengue introduction from South-East Asia into China, 2005-2015. Lai S, Johansson MA, Yin W, Wardrop NA, van Panhuis WG, Wesolowski A, et al., 2018.

Due to worldwide increased human mobility, air-transportation data and mathematical models have been widely used to measure risks of global dispersal of pathogens. However, the seasonal and interannual risks of pathogens importation and onward transmission from endemic countries have rarely been quantified and validated.

We constructed a modelling framework, integrating air travel, epidemiological, demographical, entomological and meteorological data, to measure the seasonal probability of dengue introduction from endemic countries. This framework has been applied retrospectively to elucidate spatiotemporal patterns and increasing seasonal risk of dengue importation from South-East Asia into China via air travel in multiple populations, Chinese travelers and local residents, over a decade of 2005–15.

We found that the volume of airline travelers from South-East Asia into China has quadrupled from 2005 to 2015 with Chinese travelers increased rapidly. Following the growth of air traffic, the probability of dengue importation from South-East Asia into China has increased dramatically from 2005 to 2015. This study also revealed seasonal asymmetries of transmission routes: Sri Lanka and Maldives have emerged as origins; neglected cities at central and coastal China have been increasingly vulnerable to dengue importation and onward transmission.

Compared to the monthly occurrence of dengue reported in China, our model performed robustly for importation and onward transmission risk estimates. The approach and evidence could facilitate to understand and mitigate the changing seasonal threat of arbovirus from endemic regions.

COVID-19 and Media Datasets: Period- and location-specific textual data mining. Mathieu Roche, 2020. The vocabulary used in news on a disease such as COVID-19 changes according the period. This aspect is discussed on the basis of MEDISYS-sourced media datasets via two studies. The first focuses on terminology extraction and the second on period prediction according to the textual content using machine learning approaches.